Kekkei genkai and their related techniques cannot be taught to or copied by others. However, these techniques can be given to others. Dōjutsu, or other kekkei genkai isolated to a single organ, can be transplanted into the body of another, as was done with transferring Obito's Sharingan to Kakashi. Use of these organs requires much more chakra than someone born with the kekkei genkai. Chakra elements can also be passed down to people outside of the clan, such as Yamato being subjected to DNA re-modification by Orochimaru who wanted to acquire the Wood Release kekkei genkai. However, Yamato's skill in using it is not nearly as powerful as the originator Hashirama Senju, and the risk of such process was that Yamato was the only one of the sixty test subjects to survive. Kabuto Yakushi managed to gain access to the Kaguya clan's Shikotsumyaku and Sakon and Ukon's Kekkei Genkai by transplanting their DNA into himself, creating a clone of the original wielders connected to his own body and using the abilities through that clone. Some tailed beasts are also known to possess kekkei genkai and can pass them on to their respective jinchūriki, examples include Shukaku's Magnet Release and Kokuō's Boil Release.
Although kekkei genkai, despite its name, is usually genetically shared within a specific clan, sometimes it is unique to one person alone, and that even family relatives do not share it, such as the Wood Release and Shikotsumyaku. Yet other kekkei genkai seem to appear in individuals with no known relation, such as the Lava Release, which has appeared in ninja from Kirigakure, Iwagakure, Kumogakure and Amegakure in the anime and Magnet Release, which has appeared in ninja from both Kumogakure and Sunagakure, though these kekkei genkai are subject to variation in each village.
There is an advanced variant of kekkei genkai known as kekkei tōta, which is a combination of three different nature transformations.
List of Kekkei Genkai
Main article: Boil Release
Boil Release (沸遁, Futton, Viz: Vapour Style) is a combined nature transformation kekkei genkai made up of techniques that mix fire and water-based chakra to create gaseous materials in different properties and usages.
Boruto Uzumaki's Dōjutsu
Main article: Boruto Uzumaki's Dōjutsu
This dōjutsu was awoken by Boruto Uzumaki in his right eye. In the manga, this dōjutsu is featureless in appearance with a barely visible pupil. When depicted in the anime, the dōjutsu is blue in colour with a darkened sclera and visible pupil.
Main article: Byakugan
The Byakugan (白眼, Literally meaning: White Eye, Meaning (Viz): All Seeing White Eye) is the dōjutsu kekkei genkai of the Hyūga and Ōtsutsuki clans, inherited from Kaguya Ōtsutsuki. It is regarded as one of the "Three Great Dōjutsu", the others being the Sharingan and the Rinnegan.
Main article: Crystal Release
Crystal Release (晶遁, Shōton, English TV: Crystal Style) is a rare nature that is seen only in the anime, used by Guren.
Main article: Dark Release
Dark Release (冥遁, Meiton, Viz: Shade Style) is a combined nature transformation kekkei genkai that can be used to absorb, manipulate, and release chakra taken from an opponent. Hiruko used techniques of this nature through a mark on his left hand. This mark resembles two diamonds, one overlapping the other. Chakra is absorbed through the upper square, while it is released and manipulated through the lower.
Main article: Explosion Release
Explosion Release (爆遁, Bakuton, Viz: Explosive Style) is a combined nature transformation kekkei genkai suggested to be made up of techniques that mix earth and lightning-based chakra to give the wielder the ability to utilise explosive chakra in combat.
Iburi's Clan's Kekkei Genkai
Main article: Iburi's Clan's Kekkei Genkai
This unique kekkei genkai is possessed by the members of the Iburi clan, which allows them to turn their bodies, either partially or fully, into smoke to serve various purposes. While in their smoke form the user becomes impervious to damage and can use this trait to gain an opportunity in battle, for example by allowing weapons to slip through them without any effects. However, if needed, they can still interact with physical objects.
Main article: Ice Release
Ice Release (氷遁, Hyōton, Viz: Ice Style) is the combined nature transformation kekkei genkai of the Yuki clan. It allows the user to freely create and manipulate ice by simultaneously combining wind and water-based chakra. When the user releases their chakra, the surrounding vicinity becomes cold enough to cause snow to fall. The ice Haku creates is also extremely resistant to fire-based attacks, only melting slightly when coming into contact with Sasuke's flames.
Jūgo's Clan's Kekkei Genkai
Main article: Jūgo's Clan's Kekkei Genkai
The kekkei genkai of Jūgo's clan is a passive ability which allows its members to absorb and make use of natural energy without any training in senjutsu. Due to the constant intake of natural energy, they are prone to mental instability, sporadically feeling sudden and uncontrollable urges to kill. The wielder's body can also secrete special fluids which, through means of Senjutsu chakra, allow them to transform parts of their bodies.
Main article: Ketsuryūgan
The Ketsuryugan is a dōjutsu kekkei genkai, which appears in certain individuals of the Chinoike clan. The Ketsuryūgan is recognised by its reddish colour, giving a special appearance for the users of this dōjutsu, characterised as holders of "eyes as red as blood".
Kurama Clan's Kekkei Genkai
Main article: Kurama Clan's Kekkei Genkai
Every few generations, a member of the Kurama Clan will be born with an incredible talent for genjutsu. The clan member's prowess in that field is so absolute that their genjutsu is simply overwhelming. Furthermore, the genjutsu is so powerful that it causes the brain to believe anything that happens to the victim to the point where the genjutsu physically harms the victim's body. This fearsome ability allows the clan member to potentially kill their opponents with genjutsu.
Main article: Lava Release
Lava Release (溶遁; 熔遁, Yōton, English TV: "Corrosion Style" or "Lava Style") is a combined nature transformation kekkei genkai made up of techniques that mix fire and earth-based chakra to create volcanic materials such as lava or rubber in different properties and usages.
Main article: Magnet Release
Magnet Release (磁遁, Jiton, Viz: Magnet Style) is a combined nature transformation kekkei genkai suggested to be made up of techniques that mix wind and earth-based chakra to create magnetic forces in different properties and usages. Various shinobi of Sunagakure, Kumogakure and Ishigakure have possessed this kekkei genkai
Main article: Mangekyō Sharingan
A Mangekyō Sharingan is distinguished from a normal Sharingan by its appearance, which changes the form of the tomoe seal. The exact design differs for each user, though all resemble pinwheels. It is initially awakened by the trauma suffered from witnessing the death of someone close to the user. Uchiha have historically misunderstood this criteria as the user needing to be responsible for the person's death, and for that reason they developed the practice of killing their closest friends in order to gain the Mangekyō Sharingan.
Main article: Mud Release
Mud Release (泥遁, Deiton) is a nature transformation kekkei genkai, a combination of water and earth. Because these same natures are used to create Wood Release, and because Wood Release is so famous, few people have ever heard of Mud Release, to the point that Hidan initially believes its very existence is a lie.
Ranmaru's Kekkei Genkai
Main article: Ranmaru's Kekkei Genkai
Ranmaru possessed a dōjutsu kekkei genkai which, when activated, causes his eyes to glow red in colour. It grants him abilities such as penetrative vision as well as the ability to hinder other dōjutsu such as the Byakugan which his own dōjutsu has been likened to.
Rinha Clan's Kekkei Genkai
Main article: Rinha Clan's Kekkei Genkai
The kekkei genkai of the Rinha clan allows them to absorb a person's chakra and duplicate their appearance and memories.
Main article: Rinnegan
The Rinnegan (輪廻眼, Literally meaning: Saṃsāra Eye) is reputed as the most exalted eye amongst the "Three Great Dōjutsu", the others being the Sharingan and the Byakugan. It is said that in times of disorder, one who wields the Rinnegan is sent down from the heavens to become either a "God of Creation" who will calm the world or a "God of Destruction" who will reduce everything to nothingness. The Rinnegan is characterised by a ripple pattern that spreads over the eyeball.
Ryūzetsu's Kekkei Genkai
Main article: Ryūzetsu's Kekkei Genkai
This unnamed kekkei genkai apparently allows the user to perform Reincarnation Ninjutsu as it allowed Ryūzetsu to perform the Dragon Life Reincarnation technique. It was seen only in Naruto the Movie: Blood Prison and Ryūzetsu was the only known user. Other details, such as whether it was common or rare and whether any other technique could be performed using it, are unknown.
Sakon and Ukon's Kekkei Genkai
Main article: Sakon and Ukon's Kekkei Genkai
Sakon and Ukon's unnamed kekkei genkai gives them the unique ability to break their bodies down to a molecular level. The two brothers usually use this ability to share the same body but can also use it to merge with the bodies of others and destroy the host's cells from the inside. When Sakon is in need of assistance, Ukon can bring out some of his body parts to aid Sakon in blocking or attacking. Ukon's arms and legs can emerge from those of Sakon's to increase the force and quantity to his physical attacks.
Main article: Scorch Release
Scorch Release (灼遁, Shakuton, Viz: Scorch Style) is a combined nature transformation kekkei genkai made up of techniques that mix fire and wind-based chakra to create scorching heat which is capable of heating up an enemy to the point where all the liquid inside their body evaporates, killing the victim and leaving them as a desiccated corpse.
Main article: Sharingan
The Sharingan (写輪眼, Literally meaning: Copy Wheel Eye, Meaning (Viz): Mirror Wheel Eye) is the dōjutsu kekkei genkai of the Uchiha clan that appears selectively among its members. It is regarded as one of the "Three Great Dōjutsu", the others being the Byakugan and the Rinnegan.
Main article: Shikotsumyaku
Shikotsumyaku (屍骨脈, Literally meaning: Dead Bone Pulse, Meaning (Viz): Macabre Bone Pulse) is a kekkei genkai which gives its wielder the ability to manipulate their own skeletal structure (their osteoblasts and osteoclasts). By infusing their calcium with chakra, they could manipulate the growth and properties of their bones to their liking. Kaguya Ōtsutsuki manifested a similar, albeit more lethal, ability to weaponise her bone structure from which Shikotsumyaku originates. This kekkei genkai is inherited into a rare few amongst Kaguya's descendants in the Kaguya clan, Kimimaro being the only other known inheritor of this power.
The Steel Release (鋼遁, Kōton, Viz: Steel Style) is a combined nature transformation kekkei genkai. It is unknown what elements this nature entails.
Storm Release (嵐遁, Ranton, Viz: "Gale Style" or "Storm Style") is a combined nature transformation kekkei genkai made up of techniques that mix lightning and water-based chakra to create energy beams that can be guided towards the enemy.
The concept of special ninja techniques limited by bloodline inheritance may have been inspired in part by the works of Futaro Yamada, which strongly influenced later depictions of ninja in fiction. In particular, The Kōga Ninja Scrolls (甲賀忍法帖, Kōga Ninpōchō), published in 1959, featured a pair of warring ninja clans that, through selective breeding, had produced ninja with a variety of deformities, mutations, and special abilities, even dōjutsu.